Morning Mental Malleability

From Ingwiki



Date Day Theme Word Information
6 Wednesday [Useful Word Week]
5 Tuesday [Useful Word Week]
4 Monday [Useful Word Week] euphonious euphonious

(of sound, especially speech) pleasing to the ear.

synonyms: pleasant-sounding, sweet-sounding, mellow, mellifluous, dulcet, sweet, honeyed, lyrical, silvery, golden, lilting, soothing;


Date Day Theme Word Information
31 Friday [Useful Word Week] Ames Pyramid The Ames Monument is a large pyramid in Albany County, Wyoming, designed by Henry Hobson Richardson and dedicated to brothers Oakes Ames and Oliver Ames, Jr., Union Pacific Railroad financiers. The brothers garnered credit for connecting the nation by rail upon completion of the United States' First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869. Oakes, a U.S. representative to the United States Congress from Massachusetts, asserted near total control of its construction, whereas Oliver became president of the Union Pacific Railroad (1866 - 1871).[1] In 1873 investigators implicated Oakes in fraud associated with financing of the railroad. Congress subsequently censured Oakes, who resigned in 1873.[2] He died soon thereafter.

The Ames Monument marked the highest point on the transcontinental railroad at 8,247 feet (2,514 m)[3] However, Union Pacific Railroad Company twice relocated the tracks further south, causing the town of Sherman that arose near the monument to become a ghost town.

30 Thursday [Useful Word Week] Chicanery chi·can·er·y


the use of trickery to achieve a political, financial, or legal purpose.

"an underhanded person who schemes corruption and political chicanery behind closed doors"

synonyms: trickery, deception, deceit, deceitfulness, duplicity, dishonesty, deviousness, unscrupulousness, underhandedness, subterfuge, fraud, fraudulence, swindling, cheating, duping, hoodwinking;
29 Wednesday [Useful Word Week] Provenance Provenance

the place of origin or earliest known history of something.

synonyms: origin, source, place of origin; More
  • the beginning of something's existence; something's origin.
  • a record of ownership of a work of art or an antique, used as a guide to authenticity or quality. plural noun: provenances
28 Tuesday [Useful Word Week] Utilitarian

designed to be useful or practical rather than attractive.

synonyms: practical, functional, pragmatic, serviceable, useful, sensible, efficient, utility, workaday, no-frills; More

relating to or adhering to the doctrine of utilitarianism.

"a utilitarian theorist"

27 Monday [Useful Word Week] Deontology Deontology

(or Deontological Ethics) is an approach to Ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions (Consequentialism) or to the character and habits of the actor (Virtue Ethics).

Thus, to a Deontologist, whether a situation is good or bad depends on whether the action that brought it about was right or wrong. What makes a choice "right" is its conformity with a moral norm: Right takes priority over Good. For example, if someone proposed to kill everyone currently living on land that could not support agriculture in order to bring about a world without starvation, a Deontologist would argue that this world without starvation was a bad state of affairs because of the way in which it was brought about. A Consequentialist would (or could) argue that the final state of affairs justified the drastic action. A Virtue Ethicist would concern himself with neither, but would look at whether the perpetrator acted in accordance with worthy virtues.

Deontology may sometimes be consistent with Moral Absolutism (the belief that some actions are wrong no matter what consequences follow from them), but not necessarily. For instance, Immanuel Kant famously argued that it is always wrong to lie, even if a murderer is asking for the location of a potential victim. But others, such as W.D. Ross (1877 - 1971), hold that the consequences of an action such as lying may sometimes make lying the right thing to do (Moral Relativism).

24 Friday [Useful Word Week] Disingenuous disingenuous
  • Not noble; unbecoming true honor or dignity; mean; unworthy; fake or deceptive.
  • Not ingenuous; not frank or open; uncandid; unworthily or meanly artful.
  • Assuming a pose of naïveté to make a point or for deception.


"Dis" to be in opposition to, ingenuus of noble character, frank - latin.

23 Thursday [Useful Word Week] Penumbra penumbra
  • A partially shaded area around the edges of a shadow, especially an eclipse.
  • (astronomy) A region around the edge of a sunspot, darker than the sun's surface but lighter than the middle of the sunspot.
  • (figuratively) An area of uncertainty or intermediacy between two mutually exclusive states or categories.
  • (figuratively) An area that lies on the edge of something; a fringe.
  • Something related to, connected to, and implied by, the existence of something else that is necessary for the second thing to be full and complete in its essential aspects.
  • (medicine) (in "ischaemic penumbra", after a stroke) A region of the brain that has lost only some of its blood supply, and retains structural integrity but has lost function.


From New Latin penumbra, from Latin paene (“almost”) + umbra (“shadow”).

22 Wednesday [Useful Word Week] Penultimate penultimate
  • Next to last, second to last; immediately preceding the end of a sequence, list, etc.
  • (linguistics) Of or pertaining to a penult.
  • (uncommon) A penult, a next-to-last thing, particularly:
  • (obsolete, rare) The penultimate day of a month.
  • (linguistics, literature, uncommon) The penultimate syllable of a word or metrical line.
  • (mathematics, obsolete, rare) The penultimate element of a collection of curves
  • (card games, uncommon) The penultimate (next to lowest) card in a suit.


From Latin paenultimus, from paene (“almost”) + ultimus (“last”).

21 Tuesday [Useful Word Week] Concatenate concatenate
  • To join or link together, as though in a chain.
  • Computer instruction to join two strings together.


From the perfect passive participle stem of Latin concatēnāre (“to link or chain together”), from con (“with”) + catēnō (“chain, bind”), from catēna (“a chain”).

20 Monday [Useful Word Week] Shambolic Shambolic
  • chaotic, disorganized, or mismanaged.


1970s: from shambles, probably on the pattern of symbolic .

17 Friday [Useful Word Week] Intransigence Intransigence
  • refusal to change one's views or to agree about something.


Borrowed from French intransigeant, from Spanish intransigente, from Latin in- (“un-, not”) + trānsigēns, present participle of trānsigō (“to come to an understanding”), from trāns (“across”) +‎ agō (“to do”).

16 Thursday [Useful Word Week] Prolix prolix
  • Tediously lengthy; verbose; dwelling on trivial details.
  • (obsolete) Long; having great length.


late Middle English: from Old French prolixe or Latin prolixus ‘poured forth, extended,’ from pro-‘outward’ + liquere ‘be liquid.’

15 Wednesday [Useful Word Week] Laconic laconic
  • Using as few words as possible; pithy and concise.


From Latin Lacōnicus (“Spartan”), from Ancient Greek Λακωνικός (Lakōnikós, “Laconian”). Laconia was the region inhabited and ruled by the Spartans, who were known for their brevity in speech.

14 Tuesday [Useful Word Week] Tween or


Inbetweening or tweening is a key process in all types of animation, including computer animation. It is the process of generating intermediate frames between two images, called key frames, to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second image. Inbetweens are the drawings which create the illusion of motion.

Traditional inbetweening involves the use of light tables to draw a set of pencil-on-paper pictures.

In the inbetweening workflow of traditional hand-drawn animation, the senior or key artist would draw the keyframes which define the movement, then, after testing and approval of the rough animation, would hand over the scene to their assistant. The assistant does the clean-up and the necessary inbetweens, or, in large studios, only some breakdowns which define the movement in more detail, before handing down the scene to their assistant, the inbetweener, who does the rest.

Typically, an animator does not draw inbetweens for all 24 frames required for one second of film. Only very fast movements require animation "on ones", as it is called. Most movements can be done with 12 drawings per second, which is called animating "on twos". When the number of inbetweens is too few, such as 4 frames per second, it will begin to lose the illusion of movement altogether. Computer generated animation is usually animated on ones. The decision about the number of inbetweens is also an artistic one, as certain styles of animation require a not-so-smooth fashion of movement. Animation "on twos" dates to the dawn of animation – Fantasmagorie (1908), widely considered the first fully animated movie, was animated on twos.

Modern animation will use various techniques to adapt the framerate to the current shot. Slow movements may be animated on threes or fours. Different components of a shot might be animated at different framerates – for example, a character in a panning shot might be animated on twos, while everything in the shot is shiftedevery frame to accomplish the pan. Optical effects such as motion blur may be used to simulate the appearance of a higher framerate.

When animating in a digital context, the shortened term tweening is commonly used, and the resulting sequence of frames is called a tween. Sophisticated animation software enables the animator to specify objects in an image and define how they should move and change during the tweening process. Software may be used to manually render or adjust transitional frames by hand, or may be used to automatically render transitional frames using interpolation of graphic parameters. The free software program Synfig specializes in automated tweening.

"Ease-in" and "ease-out" in digital animation typically refer to a mechanism for defining the physics of the transition between two animation states, i.e., the linearity of a tween.

The use of computers for inbetweening was enhanced by Nestor Burtnyk and Marceli Wein at the National Research Council of Canada. They received a Technical Achievement Academy Award in 1997, for "pioneering work in the development of software techniques for computer assisted key framing for character animation".

13 Monday [Useful Word Week] Pulchritudinous Pulchritudinous
  1. physically beautiful; comely.


1877, American English, from pulchritude (from Latin pulchritudino "beauty," genitive pulchritudinis) + -ous.

10 Friday [Useful Word Week] Fungible Fungible

•Being something (such as money or a commodity) of such a nature that one part or quantity may be replaced by another equal part or quantity in paying a debt or settling an account Oil, wheat, and lumber are fungible commodities. fungible goods

•Capable of mutual substitution : interchangeable

•Readily changeable to adapt to new situations : flexible


New Latin fungibilis, from Latin fungi to perform — more at function

First Known Use: 1649

in the meaning defined at sense 1

9 Thursday [Useful Word Week] Ineffable Ineffable

•Too great or extreme to be expressed or described in words.

•Not to be uttered.

•For the Basic – “I can’t even”


from Latin ineffabilis, from in- ‘not’ + effabilis

effabilis, from effari ‘utter.’

8 Wednesday [Useful Word Week] Not a word, just neat Submarine Cable Map

7 Tuesday [Useful Word Week] HIPPI HIPPI

(High Performance Parallel Interface) is a computer bus for the attachment of high speed storage devices to supercomputers, in a point-to-point link.

It was popular in the late 1980s and into the mid-to-late 1990s, but has since been replaced by ever-faster standard interfaces like Fibre Channel and later 10 Gigabit Ethernet.The first HIPPI standard defined a 50-wire twisted paircable, running at 800 Mbit/s (100 MB/s) with maximum range limited to 25 meters, but was soon upgraded to include a 1600 Mbit/s (200 MB/s) mode running on Serial HIPPI fibre optic cable with a maximum range of 10 kilometers.

HIPPI is the first “near-gigabit” (0.8 Gbit/s) (ANSI) standard for network data transmission. It was specifically designed for supercomputers and was never intended for mass market networks such as Ethernet. Many of the features developed for HIPPI are being integrated into such technologies as InfiniBand. What is remarkable about HIPPI is that it came out when Ethernet was still a 10 Mbit/s data link and SONET at OC-3 (155 Mbit/s) was considered leading edge technology.

6 Monday [Useful Word Week] Coxswain Coxswain

The steersman of a ship's boat, lifeboat, racing boat, or other boat.

More literally - the person in charge of a boat, particularly its navigation and steering.

In rowing, the coxswain sits in either the bow or the stern of the boat (depending on the type of boat) while verbally and physically controlling the boat's steering, speed, timing and fluidity.

In the United States Coast Guard and United States Coast Guard Auxiliary, the coxswain is the person in charge of a small boat.


The etymology of the word gives a literal meaning of "boat servant" since it comes from cock, a cockboat or other small vessel kept aboard a ship, and swain, an Old English term derived from the Old Norse sveinn meaning boy or servant.[1]

3 Friday [Useful Word Week] Progenitor pro·gen·i·tor
  • A forefather, any of a person's direct ancestors.
  • An individual from whom one or more people (dynasty, tribe, nation...) are descended.
  • (biology) An ancestral form of a species
  • (figuratively) A predecessor of something, especially if also a precursor or model.
  • (figuratively) Someone who originates something.
  • founder.


From Middle English, from Middle French progeniteur (Modern French progéniteur), from Latin progenitor, from progenitus, perfect participle of progignere (“to beget”), itself from pro- (“forth”) + gignere (“to beget”).

2 Thursday [Useful Word Week] Anthropomorphic an·thro·po·mor·phic
  • Having the form of a human
  • (of animals, inanimate objects, or other non-human entities) Given attributes of human beings.



Combining form of Ancient Greek ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos, “man, human”).


From Ancient Greek μορφή (morphḗ, “form, shape”) + -ic.

1 Wednesday [Useful Word Week] Extemporaneous ex·tem·po·ra·ne·ous
  • composed, performed, or uttered on the spur of the moment : impromptu an extemporaneous comment
  • carefully prepared but delivered without notes or text
  • skilled at or given to extemporaneous utterance
  • happening suddenly and often unexpectedly and usually without clearly known causes or relationships
  • a great deal of criminal and delinquent behavior is … extemporaneous
  • provided, made, or put to use as an expedient : makeshift


From Late Latin extemporāneus, from Latin ex tempore (“impromptu”).


Date Day Theme Word Information
31 Tuesday [Useful Word Week] Missive mis·sive

a letter, especially a long or official one.


late Middle English (as an adjective, originally in the phrase letter missive): from medieval Latin missivus, from Latin mittere ‘send.’ The current sense dates from the early 16th century.

30 Monday [Useful Word Week] Perambulate per·am·bu·late
  • walk or travel through or around a place or area, especially for pleasure and in a leisurely way.
  • walk around (a parish, forest, etc.) in order to officially assert and record its boundaries.


late Middle English: from Latin perambulat- ‘walked around,’ from the verb perambulare, from per- ‘all over’ + ambulare ‘to walk.’

27 Friday [Useful Word Week] Depilate dep·i·late
  • To remove the hair from


mid 16th century (earlier (late Middle English) as depilation ): from Latin depilat- ‘stripped of hair,’ from the verb depilare, from de- (expressing removal) + pilare (from pilus ‘hair’).

26 Thursday [Useful Word Week] Caltrop cal·trop
  • A spiked metal device thrown on the ground to impede wheeled vehicles or (formerly) cavalry horses.
  • A creeping plant with woody carpels that typically have hard spines and resemble military caltrops.


Old English calcatrippe, denoting any plant that tended to catch the feet, from medieval Latin calcatrippa, from calx ‘heel’ or calcare ‘to tread’ + a word related to trap1. Sense 1 was probably adopted from French.

25 Wednesday [Useful Word Week] Defenestrate de·fen·es·trate
  • Throw (someone) out of a window.
  • Remove or dismiss (someone) from a position of power or authority.

Etymology early 17th century: from modern Latin defenestratio(n-), from de- ‘down from’ + Latin fenestra ‘window.’

24 Tuesday [Useful Word Week] Flotsam and Jetsam Flotsam and jetsam are terms that describe two types of marine debris associated with vessels.
  • Flotsam is defined as debris in the water that was not deliberately thrown overboard, often as a result from a shipwreck or accident.
  • Jetsam describes debris that was deliberately thrown overboard by a crew of a ship in distress, most often to lighten the ship's load.


  • The word flotsam derives from the French word floter, to float.
  • Jetsam is a shortened word for jettison.
23 Monday [Useful Word Week] Castigate Castigate
  • reprimand (someone) severely


early 17th century: from Latin castigare ‘reprove,’ from castus ‘pure, chaste.’

20 Friday [Useful Word Week] Circumlocution Circumlocution
  • The use of many words where fewer would do, especially in a deliberate attempt to be vague or evasive.


late Middle English: from Latin circumlocutio(n-) (translating Greek periphrasis ), from circum ‘around’ + locutio(n-), from loqui ‘speak.’

19 Thursday [Useful Word Week] Genuflect Genuflect
  • Lower one's body briefly by bending one knee to the ground, typically in worship or as a sign of respect.
  • Show deference or servility.


mid 17th century (in the sense ‘bend (the knee)’): from ecclesiastical Latin genuflectere, from Latin genu‘knee’ + flectere ‘to bend.’

18 Wednesday [Useful Word Week] Animus 1. Hostility or ill feeling.

  "the author's animus toward her"

2. Motivation to do something.

  "the reformist animus came from within the Party"


from Latin, ‘spirit, mind.’

17 Tuesday [Useful Word Week] Maginot Line The Maginot Line (French: Ligne Maginot, IPA: [liɲ maʒino]), named after the French Minister of WarAndré Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications. Constructed on the French side of its borders with Italy, Switzerland, Germany, and Luxembourg, the line did not extend to the English Channel due to French strategy that envisioned a move into Belgium to counter a German assault.

Based on France's experience with trench warfareduring World War I, the massive Maginot Line was built in the run-up to World War II, after the Locarno Conference gave rise to a fanciful and optimistic "Locarno spirit". French military experts extolled the Line as a work of genius that would deter German aggression, because it would slow an invasion force long enough for French forces to mobilize and counterattack.

The Maginot Line was impervious to most forms of attack, including aerial bombings and tank fire, and had underground railways as a backup; it also had state-of-the-art living conditions for garrisoned troops, supplying air conditioning and eating areas for their comfort. Instead of attacking directly, the Germans invaded through the Low Countries, bypassing the Line to the north. French and British officers had anticipated this: when Germany invaded the Netherlands and Belgium, they carried out plans to form an aggressive front that cut across Belgium and connected to the Maginot Line. However, the French line was weak near the Ardennes forest. The French believed this region, with its rough terrain, would be an unlikely invasion route of German forces; if it was traversed, it would be done at a slow rate that would allow the French time to bring up reserves and counterattack. The German Army, having reformulated their plans from a repeat of the First World War-era plan, became aware of and exploited this weak point in the French defensive front. A rapid advance through the forest and across the River Meuse encircled much of the Allied forces, resulting in a sizeable force being evacuated at Dunkirk leaving the forces to the south unable to mount an effective resistance to the German invasion of France.

The line has since become a metaphor for expensive efforts that offer a false sense of security.

16 Monday [Useful Word Week] Ossify ossify (third-person singular simple present ossifies, present participle ossifying, simple past and past participle ossified)

1.To transform (or cause to transform) from a softer animal substance into bone; particularly the processes of growth in humans and animals.

2.To become (or cause to become) inflexible and rigid in habits or opinions.

3.To grow (or cause to grow) formulaic and permanent.

4.(rare) To calcify.


From Latin os, ossis (“bone”) +‎ -ify.

13 Friday [Useful Word Week] Boffin Polymath Boffin BRITISH - informal

a person engaged in scientific or technical research.

a person with knowledge or a skill considered to be complex, arcane, and difficult.


A person of wide-ranging knowledge or learning.


Boffin - Originally, the word was armed-forces slang for a technician or research scientist. In the 12 January 1953 issue of Life magazine, a short article on Malcolm Compston depicts him testing "the Admiralty's new plastic survival suit" in the Arctic Ocean; the article, entitled "Cold Bath for a Boffin", defines the term for its American audience as "civilian scientist working with the British Navy" and notes that his potentially life-saving work demonstrates "why the term 'boffin', which first began as a sailor's expression of joking contempt, has become instead one of affectionate admiration".

The origins and etymology of boffin are otherwise obscure. Linguist Eric Partridge proposed the term derived from Nicodemus Boffin, a character who appears in the novel Our Mutual Friend by Charles Dickens, who is described there as a "very odd-looking old fellow indeed". In the novel, Mr Boffin pursues a late-life education, employing Silas Wegg to teach him to read.

Polymath - early 17th century: from Greek polumathēs ‘having learned much,’ from polu- ‘much’ + the stem of manthanein ‘learn.’

12 Thursday [Useful Word Week] Dichotomy dichotomy (plural dichotomies)
  1. A separation or division into two; a distinction that results in such a division.
  2. Such a division involving apparently incompatible or opposite principles; a duality.
  3. (logic) The division of a class into two disjoint subclasses that are together comprehensive, as the division of man into white and not white.
  4. (biology, taxonomy) The division of a genus into two species; a division into two subordinate parts.
  5. (astronomy) A phase of the moon when it appears half lit and half dark, as at the quadratures.
  6. (biology) Division and subdivision; bifurcation, as of a stem of a plant or a vein of the body into two parts as it proceeds from its origin; often successive.


From Ancient Greek διχότομος (dikhótomos, “equally divided, cut in half”)

11 Wednesday [Useful Word Week] Didactic Intended to teach, particularly in having moral instruction as an ulterior motive.

In the manner of a teacher, particularly so as to treat someone in a patronizing way.


Didaskein - Greek - To teach

Additional Interesting Derivatives

Autodidact -

  1. a self-taught person

Auto-didactic -

  1. a person who has learned a subject without the benefit of a teacher or formal education; a self-taught person.
10 Tuesday [Useful Word Week] Conflagration


conflagration (plural conflagrations)

1.  A large fire extending to many objects, or over a large space; a general burning.

It took sixty firefighters to put out the conflagration.

2.   (figuratively) A large-scale conflict.


(third-person singular simple present conflagrates, present participle conflagrating, simple past and past participle conflagrated)

  1. (intransitive) To catch fire. [17th century to the present]
  2. (transitive) To set fire to something. [17th century to the present]


From cōnflāgrāt-, the perfect passive participial stem of the Latin cōnflāgrō (“I am consumed by fire”, “I set aflame”).

9 Monday [Useful Word Week] Visceral visceral (comparative more visceral, superlative most visceral)
  1. (anatomy) Of or relating to the viscera—internal organs of the body; splanchnic.
  2. Having to do with the response of the body as opposed to the intellect, as in the distinction between feeling and thinking.
  3. (figuratively, obsolete) Having deep sensibility.


From Middle French viscéral, from Latin viscera, plural of viscus (“any internal organ of the body”).

6 Friday Philosophia Blood type personality theory In East Asian countries, a person's ABO blood type is believed by many to be predictive of a person's personality, temperament, and compatibility with others.This is similar to how astrological signs are perceived as influencing factors in a person's life in other countries.

One of the reasons Japan developed the blood type personality indicator theory was in reaction against ethnic stereotypes coming from Europe.

The popular belief originates with publications by Masahiko Nomi in the 1970s.

The scientific community generally dismisses blood type personality theories as a superstition or pseudoscience because of lack of evidence or testable criteria. Although research into the causal link between blood type and personality is limited, research does not demonstrate any statistically significant association between the two.

Some studies suggest that there is a statistically significant relationship between blood type and personality, although it is unclear if this is simply due to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Recently, some medical hypotheses have been proposed in support of blood type personality theory.

5 Thursday Technological Rhesus factor Rh blood group system is one of thirty-five known human blood group systems. It is the second most important blood group system, after the ABO blood group system. The Rh blood group system consists of 49 defined blood group antigens, among which the five antigens D, C, c, E, and e are the most important. There is no d ("little d") antigen. Rh(D) status of an individual is normally described with a positive or negative suffix after the ABO type. e.g. Someone who is A Positive has the A antigen and the Rh(D) antigen, whereas someone who is A Negative lacks the Rh(D) antigen. The terms Rh factor, Rh positive and Rh negative refer to the Rh(D) antigen only. Antibodies to Rh antigens can be involved in hemolytic transfusion reactions and antibodies to the Rh(D) and Rh(c) antigens confer significant risk of Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

The term "Rh" was originally an abbreviation of "Rhesus factor." It was discovered in 1937 by Karl Landsteiner and Alexander S. Wiener who, at the time, believed it to be a similar antigen found in rhesus monkey red blood cells. It was subsequently learned the human factor is not identical to the rhesus monkey factor; but by then, "Rhesus Group" and like terms were already in widespread, worldwide use. Thus, notwithstanding it is a misnomer, the term survives (e.g. rhesus blood group system, and the obsolete terms rhesus factor, rhesus positive, and rhesus negative - all three which actually refer specifically and only to the Rh D factor; and, thus, are misleading when unmodified). Contemporary practice is to use "Rh" as a term of art instead of "Rhesus"; viz. "Rh Group," "Rh factors," "Rh D," etc.

4 Wednesday Whimsical Humorism Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluidsin a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.

The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile (Greek: μέλαινα χολή, melaina chole), yellow bile (Greek: ξανθη χολή, xanthe chole), phlegm (Greek: φλέγμα, phlegma), and blood (Greek: αἷμα, haima), and each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments. A humor is also referred to as a cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums). Based on Hippocratic medicine, it was believed that the four humors were to be in balanced proportions with regard to amount and strength of each humor for a body to be healthy.

3 Tuesday Terrestrial Blood Falls An outflow of an iron oxide-tainted plume of saltwater, flowing from the tongue of Taylor Glacier onto the ice-covered surface of West Lake Bonney in the Taylor Valley of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Victoria Land, East Antarctica.

Iron-rich hypersaline water sporadically emerges from small fissures in the ice cascades. The saltwater source is a subglacial pool of unknown size overlain by about 400 metres (1,300 ft) of ice several kilometers from its tiny outlet at Blood Falls.

The reddish deposit was found in 1911 by the Australian geologist Griffith Taylor, who first explored the valley that bears his name.

The Antarctica pioneers first attributed the red color to red algae, but later it was proven to be due to iron oxides.

2 Monday Mechanical Sanguine Definition

1.    Optimistic or positive, especially in an apparently bad or difficult situation.

2.    Having the color of blood; blood red.

3.    archaic - bloody or bloodthirsty.


(in medieval science and medicine) of or having the constitution associated with the predominance of blood among the bodily humors, supposedly marked by a ruddy complexion and an optimistic disposition.


Date Day Theme Word Information
29 Friday Philosophia Kasuga-taisha



Nara Kōen

Japanese: 奈良公園

Kasuga Grand Shrine (春日大社 Kasuga-taisha) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Nara, in Nara Prefecture, Japan.[1] Established in 768 CE and rebuilt several times over the centuries, it is the shrine of the Fujiwara family. The interior is famous for its many bronze lanterns, as well as the many stone lanterns that lead up the shrine.

The path to Kasuga Shrine passes through Deer Park. In Deer Park, deer are able to roam freely and are believed to be sacred messengers of the Shinto gods that inhabit the shrine and surrounding mountainous terrain. Kasuga Shrine and the deer have been featured in several paintings and works of art of the Nambokucho Period.[2]Over three thousand stone lanterns line the way. The Man'yo Botanical Garden, Nara is adjacent to the shrine.


According to local folklore, Sika deer from this area were considered sacred due to a visit from Takemikazuchi-no-mikoto, one of the four gods of Kasuga Shrine.[2] He was said to have been invited from Kashima Shrine in present-day Ibaraki Prefecture,[3] and appeared on Mount Mikasa (also known as Mount Wakakusa) riding a white deer. From that point, the deer were considered divine and sacred by both Kasuga Shrine and Kōfuku-ji.[3] Killing one of these sacred deer was a capital offense punishable by death up until 1637, the last recorded date of a breach of that law.[3]

After World War II, the deer were officially stripped of their sacred/divine status,[3] and were instead designated as national treasures and are protected as such. Today, visitors can purchase "deer-crackers" (鹿煎餅 Shika-senbei) to feed the deer in the park. These crackers are exclusively sold by the WNOW company.[2]

28 Thursday Technological CRISPR CRISPR is an abbreviation of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats

CRISPR (/ˈkrɪspər/) is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.[1] The sequences contain snippets of DNA from viruses that have attacked the prokaryote. These snippets are used by the prokaryote to detect and destroy DNA from similar viruses during subsequent attacks. These sequences play a key role in a prokaryotic defense system,[1]and form the basis of a technology known as CRISPR/Cas9 that effectively and specifically changes genes within organisms.

A simple version of the CRISPR/Cas system, CRISPR/Cas9, has been modified to edit genomes. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added.

CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including medicine and crop seed enhancement.

The discovery of clustered DNA repeats occurred independently in three parts of the world. The first description of what would later be called CRISPR is from Osaka University researcher Yoshizumi Ishino and his colleagues in 1987.

27 Wednesday Whimsical Kawaii


Kawaii (かわいい, pronounced [kaɰaiꜜi]; "lovable", "cute", or "adorable")[1] is the culture of cuteness in Japan.[2][3][4][5] It can refer to items, humans and nonhumans that are charming, vulnerable, shy and childlike.[2] Examples include cute handwriting, certain genres of manga, and Hello Kitty.[6]

The cuteness culture, or kawaii aesthetic, has become a prominent aspect of Japanese popular culture, entertainment, clothing, food, toys, personal appearance and mannerisms.[7]


Cute manga drawing using kawaii basis (illustration by Daya Wyrd)

The word kawaii originally derives from the phrase 顔映し kao hayushi, which literally means "(one's) face (is) aglow," commonly used to refer to flushing or blushing of the face.

Over time, the meaning changed into the modern meaning of "cute", and the pronunciation changed to かわゆい kawayuiand then to the modern かわいい kawaii.

It is most commonly written in hiragana, かわいい, but the ateji, 可愛い, has also been appended. The kanji in the ateji literally translates to "able to be loved, can/may love, lovable."


Soichi Masubuchi (増淵宗一 Masubuchi Sōichi), in his work Kawaii Syndrome, claims "cute" and "neat" have taken precedence over the former Japanese aesthetics of "beautiful" and "refined".[11] As a cultural phenomenon, cuteness is increasingly accepted in Japan as a part of Japanese cultureand national identity.

26 Tuesday Terrestrial Edo Edo (江戸, "bay-entrance" or "estuary"), also romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo.[2] It was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868. During this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a "floating world".[1]

From the establishment of the Tokugawa bakufu headquarters at Edo, the town became the de facto capital and center of political power, although Kyoto remained the formal capital of the country. Edo grew from what had been a small, little-known fishing village in 1457 into the largest metropolis in the world with an estimated population of 1,000,000 by 1721.[1][3]


Comes from The Sumida River, then called the Great River (大川, Ōkawa), ran along the eastern edge of the city. The shogunate's official rice-storage warehouses,[8] other official buildings and some of the city's best-known restaurants were located here.


On 3 September 1868, the city was renamed Tokyo ("Eastern capital"), and the Meiji Emperor moved his capital to Tokyo, electing residence in Edo Castle, today's Imperial Palace.[2]

25 Monday Mechanical Kanna The Japanese plane or kanna (鉋) is a plane pulled towards the user rather than pushed in the manner of western style planes. They are made of hardwood, usually Japanese white or red oak. The laminated steel and iron blade is stout compared to western planes. Tapered in length and thickness the plane blade is its own wedge as it fits into a correspondingly shaped mortice in the body of the plane. Thus dispensing the need for a separate wedge to hold the blade in place, as is the case in most other traditional wooden planes.
22 Friday Philosophia Mu

Traditional Chinese / Japanese: 無

Korean: 무


meaning "not have; without", is a key word in Buddhism, especially Zen traditions.

Some English translation equivalents of or mu 無 are:

·        "no", "not", "nothing", or "without"[2]

·        nothing, not, nothingness, un-, is not, has not, not any[3]

·        [1] Nonexistence; nonbeing; not having; a lack of, without. [2] A negative. [3] Caused to be nonexistent. [4] Impossible; lacking reason or cause. [5] Pure human awareness, prior to experience or knowledge. This meaning is used especially by the Chan school. [6] The 'original nonbeing' from which being is produced in the Daode jing.


Old Chinese *ma 無 is cognate with the Proto-Tibeto-Burman *ma"not". This reconstructed root is widely represented in Tibeto-Burman languages; for instance, ma means "not" in both Written Tibetan and Written Burmese.[8]


The word features prominently with a similar meaning in Douglas Hofstadter's 1979 book, Gödel, Escher, Bach. It is used fancifully in discussions of symbolic logic, particularly Gödel's incompleteness theorems, to indicate a question whose "answer" is to

·        un-ask the question,

·        indicate the question is fundamentally flawed, or

·        reject the premise that a dualistic answer can or will be given.[21]

"Mu" may be used similarly to "N/A" or "not applicable," a term often used to indicate the question cannot be answered because the conditions of the question do not match the reality. A layperson's example of this concept is often invoked by the loaded question "Have you stopped beating your wife?",[22] to which "mu" would be the only respectable response.[23]

Because of this meaning, programming language Perl 6 uses "Mu" for the root of its type hierarchy.[24]

21 Thursday Technological Yotta


In the International System of Units and other metric systems of units, multiplying the unit to which it is attached by 1024; septillion-. Symbol: Y              

The yottabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix yotta indicates multiplication by the eighth power of 1000 or 1024 in the International System of Units(SI), and therefore one yottabyte is one septillion (one long scalequadrillion) bytes. The unit symbol for the yottabyte is YB.


From Ancient Greek ὀκτώ (oktṓ, “eight”), for the eighth order of 103. The consonants ct are reduced to tt as in Italian, by analogy with peta-; the final a conforms to the finals vowel of the SI series from mega- upwards; the letter y was added, as the second term in a series running through the alphabet backwards (from zetta-).


In 2010, it was estimated that storing a yottabyte on terabyte-size disk drives would require one billion city block-size data-centers, as big as the states of Delaware and Rhode Island combined.[1] By late 2016 memory density had increased to the point where a yottabyte could be stored on SD cards occupying roughly twice the size of the Hindenburg.[2]

With recently demonstrated technology using DNA computing for storage, one yottabyte of capacity would require a volume between 0.003 and 1 cubic meter, depending on number of redundant backup copies desired and the storage density: "Our genetic code packs billions of gigabytes into a single gram"

20 Wednesday Whimsical Hypergolic


(of a rocket propellant) igniting spontaneously on mixing with another substance.


from Greek huper ‘over, beyond.’

probably from hyper- ‘beyond

Greek ergon or work, and Latin oleumor oil


A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.

The two propellant components usually consist of a fuel and an oxidizer. Although commonly used, hypergolic propellants are difficult to handle because of their extreme toxicity and/or corrosiveness. They can be stored as liquids at room temperature and hypergolic engines are easy to ignite reliably and repeatedly.

In contemporary usage, the terms "hypergol" or "hypergolic propellant" usually mean the most common such propellant combination, dinitrogen tetroxide plus hydrazine and/or its relatives monomethylhydrazine MMH and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine UDMH.

“a molecule with one reducing (fuel) end and one oxidizing end, separated by a pair of firmly crossed fingers, is an invitation to disaster.”

19 Tuesday Terrestrial Baikal


Lake Baikal is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblastto the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.


in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake"


Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22–23% of the world's fresh surface water. With 23,615.39 km3 (5,670 cu mi) of fresh water,[1] it contains more water than the North American Great Lakes combined. With a maximum depth of 1,642 m (5,387 ft),

Baikal is the world's deepest lake.

It is considered among the world's clearest[9] lakes and is considered the world's oldest lake[10] – at 25–30 million years.

It is the seventh-largest lake in the world by surface area.

18 Monday Mechanical Machinations


a plot or scheme.


late Middle English: from Old French, or Latin machinatio-, from machinat- ‘contrived’

early 16th century (used transitively in the sense ‘to plot (a malicious act)’): from Latin machinat-‘contrived,’ from the verb machinari, from machina (see machine).

15 Friday None Philology Definition

Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.[1] Philology is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist.

In older usage, especially British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics.[2][3]


The term "philology" is derived from the Greek φιλολογία (philología),[5] from the terms φίλος (phílos) "love, affection, loved, beloved, dear, friend" and λόγος (lógos) "word, articulation, reason", describing a love of learning, of literature, as well as of argument and reasoning, reflecting the range of activities included under the notion of λόγος. The term changed little with the Latin philologia, and later entered the English language in the 16th century, from the Middle French philologie, in the sense of "love of literature".

14 Thursday None Protean Tending or able to change frequently. Able to do many things, Versatile.
13 Wednesday None Epistemology

The theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope.

Epistemology is the investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion.

In mathematics, it is known that 2 + 2 = 4, but there is also knowing how to add two numbers, and knowing a person (e.g., oneself), place (e.g., one's hometown), thing (e.g., cars), or activity (e.g., addition). Some philosophers think there is an important distinction between "knowing that" (know a concept), "knowing how"(understand an operation), and "acquaintance-knowledge" (know by relation), with epistemology being primarily concerned with the first of these.